The development of the cottonseed industry had its beginning with the invention of the cotton gin in 1793. The cotton gin made large supplies of cotton seed available.One of the most common uses today for cottonseed is cottonseed oil and vegetable oil. Cottonseed oil is extracted from the cottonseed kernel. Cottonseed oil is used in food products like, candy, potatoes chips and crackers. Cottonseed oil is also a main ingredient in many marinades, dressings, margarine and prepared foods. Cottonseed is also used as a supplement in cattle feeds as a high energy, high protein nutrient. Linters are the short fibers that cling to the seed. The linters are used for items such as film, currency and cellulose used in foods like ice cream, syrup and gum. Even the hulls surrounding the kernel are used for roughage in the diet of cattle and as an organic mulch for gardening. The cotton plant produces twice as much seed as it does fiber. It contributes about 15% of the cotton farmers income. The seed from one bale of cotton will produce enough oil to cook almost 6000 snack bags of potato chips. Many products such as Crisco, Wesson Oil, Ivory Soap and others were originally developed using cottonseed oil. Cottonseed oil contains no cholesterol and plays a large role in reducing fat intake. The cottonseed oil mill industry is a 1.2 billion dollar industry and provides jobs throughout the U.S. 1.3 billion pounds of cottonseed oil are produced annually making cottonseed oil the third leading oil in the U.S. Cotton is grown over most of the southern U.S.
Once a waste-disposal problem for gins, cottonseed is now a valuable by-product. The seed goes to oil mills, where it is delinted of its linters in an operation similar to ginning. The bare seed is then cracked and the kernel removed. The meal that remains after the oil has been extracted is high in protein. Linters are used for padding in furniture and cars, for absorbent cotton-wool swabs, and for manufacture of many cellulose products such as rayon, plastics, lacquers, and smokeless powder for shells and cartridges. The hulls, or husks, are used as feed for cattle. Kernels, or meats, provide cottonseed oil. The cake and meal are used for feed and flour. Foots, the sediment left by cottonseed oil refining, provides fatty acids for industrial products.
Application – Cotton Seed
Approximately 850,000 tons of cottonseed is produced annually in California. About 95% is fed to dairy cattle and the balance is crushed for the oil. Cottonseed when crushed produces many byproducts which are common in everyday use. Linters, which is the fuzz left on the seed after ginning, are used for such items as dynamite, filler in gun powder, mops, cotton balls, automotive upholstery, fine writing paper and currency. Cellulose, which is the principal component of the cotton fiber, when extracted from the linters is used to make food casing, paint, toothpaste, and plastics for windshields, tool handles, x-ray film, just to name a few. Cottonseed hulls are mainly used for animal feed. Cottonseed Oil is used for cooking oil, salad dressing, cosmetics, soap, and as a carrier for agricultural sprays (no VOC). The Cottonseed meal and cake is used for fertilizers and feed for cattle, sheep, horses, pigs, fish and shrimp.
Cotton seed Meal
Cottonseed meal is a high protein by-product from the extraction of oil from whole cottonseed. There are two different processing methods used to extract the oil from the cottonseed, and they differ in the amount of oil (fat) they leave in the meal. The amount of oil left in the meal affects its energy value.
Cottonseed meal is palatable and commonly is used in cattle rations in the southern and western U.S. Solvent extracted cottonseed meal is the more common of the two types. Cottonseed meal contains gossypol. Under typical conditions, though, even high-producing cows will not consume enough cottonseed meal to suffer from gossypoltoxicity.
Cottonseed meal is used as a protein supplement and can replace all of the soybean meal in the ration
Typical Analysis Expeller process: Solvent process:
- Dry matter 94 % 92 %
- Crude Protein 41.0 % 41.5 %
- Fat 04.5 % 01.5 %
- Crude fiber 12.5 % 12.5 %
- Neutral Detergent Fiber 26.3 % 23.9 %
- Acid Detergent Fiber 18.8 % 17.5 %
- Calcium 0.15 % 0.15 %
- Phosphorus 1.10 % 1.10 %
- TDN 72.0 % 70.0 %
- Net energy—Lactation 76.3 Mcal/100 lbs 72.6 Mcal/100 lbs